Do you know how the electricity works in your house? We are
not usually aware of issues like this, and the truth is that it is important to
have some basic notions of everything that is part of our daily life, and even
more so when they are our supplies, they are part of our house, and even if it
is something essential in our lives, has its share of danger.
For this reason, today we are going to try to explain how the electrical installation of our home works in a way that we can all understand.
The electricity supply for our home comes from an energy distributor, that is, the electricity company that each of us has contracted. This energy distributor is "hooked" to our building through what is called the connection or general protection box of the building. It is a box that has three fuses that protect the installation of the entire building if there is any overload. Once inside the building we have the centralization of the meters, through which it is distributed to each of the houses by individual derivation.
Inside our home we have three cables, called phase, neutral, and ground, which come from the individual derivation. How do these cables work? Well, the "phase" wire is a black or brown conductor through which the current enters an electrical circuit, and this passes through the receiver, which can be a household appliance, a light bulb, ... the "neutral" wire is a blue conductor, which follows the phase cable in the installation, that is, the current that passes through the receiver comes out through this neutral cable. And the "grounding" cable is a green-yellow cable, which is in charge of protection against current leakage by making the differential jump due to insulation damage to avoid shocks to people or unwanted short circuits.
We have different electrical circuits inside our homes, that is, our electrical installation is divided into several separate specific parts. The most common are five, although this can vary. This is how it differentiates between the internal distribution circuit that is responsible for feeding the lighting points of our house, we can directly call it "lighting circuit"; the internal distribution circuit that takes care of the general use and refrigerator sockets; the internal distribution circuit that supplies electricity to the kitchen and the oven; the internal distribution circuit that is in charge of feeding the washing machine, the dishwasher, and the electric water heater; and the internal distribution circuit that is in charge of feeding the electrical outlets of the bathrooms, and the auxiliary bases of the kitchen. As we said at the beginning, these are the basics, but there may be more, and each and every one of them is independent.
These circuits are separated in the distribution board, this box is found at the entrance to the house, usually behind the door, it is the box or light box. In this table we are going to see the ICP, which is the acronym for "power control switch”, This ICP is what controls the electrical power that we have contracted with our electricity distributor, that is, the electricity company that supplies us.
If we use more power than we have contracted, it will jump to cut off the electricity as a protection mechanism, therefore, if in our home we need more power because we use many appliances at the same time or appliances that need a lot of power, we will have to contract more with our company, and pass it from the basic degree of electricity to the high degree of electricity, which are those that are usually used in homes.
The next circuit breaker that we find in the table is the IGA, whose acronym stands for "automatic general switch”. This is responsible for cutting the current in all circuits at the same time as a protection system against overloads in the installation, as it usually happens with a short circuit.
The next thing we will see is the so-called PIA, which means "Magnetothermic Switches”, one for each circuit. It is responsible for separating the circuits and protecting them from electricity surges.
And finally we will talk about the Differential, which is the one that protects us from indirect contacts, that is, from electrical discharges if there is a leakage of current to ground, or an insulation failure. At that time, it will take care of disconnecting the electrical installation quickly.
This is how the electricity in our house is organized, our particular electrical installation, which we must use and maintain correctly so that its operation is optimal, and above all safe. Do not forget to contact an electrical professional if you need more information, and especially if you notice faults or malfunctions in your electrical installation.
If you need more information on how electricity at your house works, as well as the investigation and execution of the connections, contact Real electrical solutions today.